I have no idea why JS is so popular, I had to learn it (and Python and Django) for a job and I hated it. The var keyword feels like someone somewhere is laughing his ass off. On a previous project the front end was all in JS and I was managing the back end in C#; I offered to learn JS so I could help out in the front end occasionally and everyone advised me not to, said it was a mess of dialects and versions.
Java's idiomatic use of throw turned me off to it.
C# also has throw but you can write huge projects without using it at all; Java seems to demand its use.
You use inheritance as a signature property of OOP languages; I would say that member functions make a much better example. Inheritance was exciting when OOP was new to development but in practice it has turned out to be a wet firecracker. I have used it usefully only a few times and never had any use for more than one level of it. Implementations like ATL that made heavy use of inheritance were unreadable.